Monday, 20 November 2017

Professional Interpretation Services

High-Quality Interpretation

Language Services Bureau was proud to be associated with the World Skill Contest 2017 organized in Pune, in the first week of November by a major Automobile Manufacturer of India - we provided 14 interpreters for the contest and translated the question papers into 9 foreign languages for the written tests .. along with languages like Spanish, Arabic, Turkish, Nepali, Bangla, were rare languages like Khmer and Philipino .. to name a few! The interpreters facilitated communication between the examiners and candidates and helped them win different award categories!

We have often come across clients who require interpreters for their important meetings, audits, conferences or seminars .. however instead of approaching professionals, they hire their friends, colleagues, or even students to do the job!

The result is disastrous, to say the least!

Just like one can’t become a mathematician since one knows maths, or a scientist as one has learned science in school and college, similarly, just because a language is your mother tongue or as you have learned a foreign language, you don’t become qualified to do interpretation in that language!

If such people are hired for interpretation – there is either over-translation or under-translation – that means, the message is not communicated completely – it is either communicated with the extra information from interpreters or with omissions. Such misinterpretation can build up into one big misunderstanding or issues which are unpredictable in nature!

No communication is surely better than miscommunication!

In fact, in most countries where Interpretation is required frequently and recognized as a profession, there exist specific Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct for the professionals who adhere to it.


Several specializations exist in interpretation – Every specialization requires knowledge of the domain in which work is to be done, along with sound and solid knowledge of the two languages concerned.
  •          technical interpretation,
  •          medical interpretation
  •          legal/court interpretation
  •          conference interpretation (simultaneous)

Imagine a technical interpreter who doesn’t know what a camshaft is or what it is called in the target language!

Or medical interpreters who can help communicate neither the doctors’ instructions to the patient nor the patients’ complaints to the doctor properly!!

In the US or Europe, the respective Government tries to rope in interpreters for different communities which lack basic amenities and are fighting for their rights like refugees, etc. One misinterpreted message, and it can add to the miseries of the suffering people.
Imagine an international conference where multi-lingual interpretation is required. Once the main interpreter communicates what is being said in Spanish into English, the others interpret the message from English into various other languages. They will have to pass on an incorrect message if that is what comes through from the main Spanish-English interpreter!

It is therefore of paramount importance that the interpreters hired in all these circumstances are experienced professionals with knowledge of the specific field!

An Unorganized sector in India

The Language Industry is still not a formally pronounced and recognized Industry in India. Most people work as freelancers. Formal education in interpretation does not exist in most Indian languages, and at very few universities for foreign languages.  This leads to multiple problems for the end client:
  1. No shows – the interpreter doesn’t show up at the last minute, without any update nor replacement
  2. Timing issues – the interpreter shows up late, leaves early, takes leave without informing anybody
  3. Lack of language skills – the so-called “interpreter” doesn’t know the spoken language well or isn’t confident enough to speak it
  4.  Lack of specialized knowledge – the interpreter doesn’t know the topic well or hasn’t researched well.
  5. Lack of specialization – since this is not a formal industry, specialized interpreters are hard to find. The interpreters, therefore, have to prepare for every assignment depending on the domain and the requirements by asking for specific documentation/plans/agendas/drawings, etc. so as to be abreast with the discussions that will take place
  6.  Lack of professional conduct – Sometimes, wearing the right clothes or speaking clearly and professionally is a basic expectation but something that is not usually spoken and communicated. It could so happen that the interpreter doesn’t know his/her limits and tries to be over friendly with the people he is working with and either one of the two parties (client or his client) has to face embarrassing situations.
  7.  Lack of (good quality) interpretation equipment – it is imperative to use good quality equipment for simultaneous interpretation - a separate interpreter booth, high-quality audio system, headsets, Microphones of all types, Sound desks, Speaker consoles, Receivers and headsets, Public address equipment, Mobile equipment, etc. is an absolute must .. and without it, however experienced the interpreter is, the entire exercise of interpretation is a total waste!
  8.  Lack of fitness – apart from physical fitness since assignments can involve working 10 hours or more without many breaks, continuously moving around a factory or interpreting for meetings for even longer, talking continuously where mental fitness comes into the picture, sometimes the most crucial fitness can be hearing ability or ability to speak clearly!!
  9.  Ignorance about team interpreting – in simultaneous interpretation, for a requirement of more than 1-2 hours, team interpreting is required, so as to provide much-needed breaks to the interpreters involved. It is also required since both interpreters can support each other so as to not miss important data related to numbers, names, dates, and quite simply to correct in case something is incorrectly interpreted. Most clients don’t know about this or want to cut costs and not hire more than 1 interpreter for the whole day. This however adversely affects the interpretation quality.

Experience matters! At LSB, we have provided professional interpretation services at 

  • audits (for quality, Six Sigma or pharma industries),
  • conferences, 
  • meetings, 
  • technical training, 
  • technical meetings, 
  • technical repair and maintenance tasks on the shop floor, 
  • skill contests, 
  • seminars, 
  • new product development, 
  • at hospitals or courts, 
  • and more!! 

Trust us for your next interpretation requirement and get in touch with us for all your language requirements on!

Saturday, 30 September 2017

Website Localization - Part 3 - Localization strategies

Website localization – Key strategies to keep in mind:    

In this last article from the Website translation series, we present to you the key points to be borne in mind while planning to translate/localize your website. Localization is not only translation but also adaptation of the website according to the tastes and preferences of a given population, its culture and language.

1. Define keywords and plan Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

It is only after a website is translated that companies decide on multilingual SEO and thus website localization efforts become more complex and delays become a norm. This is a huge planning mistake.
Effective multilingual SEO requires team work with your web developers. Most important pitfalls are as follows:
a.    Keyword research – Even countries sharing the same language use different words to refer to the same thing. Terms like rubber vs eraser or lorry vs truck mean very different things in the US and the UK. Bottom line - Good keywords for the UK, France or Spain may not be successful in the US/Australia, Canada/Africa or some Latin American countries, even if it is the same language that is spoken at two locales.
b.    Different search engines in different regions - Google is the most used crawler in the West, but Yandex is the preferred search engine in Russia and it is becoming popular in other countries like Turkey. Baidu is indisputably the best search engine in China. Also, focusing your strategy only on Google may not give results for Yahoo or Bing. Yahoo is still a respected engine and service in Japan.
c.    Monitor search engine updates – All search engines improve and update their search results algorithms. Though rich content and friendly design are important and will not go out of fashion, some periodic SEO strategy updates are required to maintain your ranking healthy.

2. Make friends with the IT team 

You need to prepare the IT team from the start for the possibility that their code will need to be updated. The following potential problems need to be considered:
a.    how to display the default language in a localedisplay of content in a right-to-left layout, e.g. for Arabic, Persian, Urdu: making a mirror image of the existing website, such that the links, titles, text, paragraphs  and images are displayed in a right to left format
c.    space requirements needed to present the content in other languages- Remember that every language has a set of characters that occupy a different amount of space in a layout. If your first language is English and you want to localize a website for Germany, then you might be surprised that some words are quite long, even though both languages use Latin characters. Other languages occupy even less space than English, e.g. Chinese. Do the research to fit the content in the layout.
d.   display of special characters and choice of right encoding for them (such as UTF-8, UTF-16, etc.)- Almost every language in the world comes with its own set of special characters, such as unique letters and accents.
The problem arises if you are not prepared to display special characters. The characters could end up as weird symbols as a result and will undermine the quality, feel and effect of your website. Another culprit of mis-rendered special characters is custom fonts that are minified and embedded on websites. Use minified font to display user-generated content should be avoided; comments, for example, might come out wrong even though all other content on the website looks fine.
e.    display of first and last names in a culturally sensitive way: In Russian, a person's fathers name is used while addressing a person with respect. Hence, understanding cultural mannerisms and unwritten rules are of prime importance while localizing such content. 


Market-specific issues can be subtle yet make a lot of difference due to cultural sensitivities of your audience.
a.    Date format - In the US, dates are displayed as MM-DD-YYYY, whereas in most European and Asian countries the day precedes the month (DD-MM-YYYY).Imagine users in European countries who are accustomed to a certain format for picking a delivery date, shopping on an Arab website. If they don’t pay attention to the instructions (which mention that the week starts on Sunday), they might just click on the calendar and expect to see Monday first. Users might feel unhappy and feel misled in such cases (according to their cultural code). Holidays are also part of the calendar and could be confusing if the calendar does not show local holidays and vacations.
b.    Register or tone of your message - Some languages are more formal than others – e.g. an informal tone is almost taken for granted in English (especially in the US), and addressing your audience as Sir and Madam might sound a little weird. German, French and Japanese are quite the opposite. A familiar tone might seem rude to such audiences. Hence the importance of working with native language translators; ask them for advice on choosing the correct language register depending on your product and the relationship you wish to build with your clients/customers.
c.    Measurements –countries use various measurement units for the same measures – e.g. inch in the UK, India, but millimeters in the US, France. Localized versions of a website should show the right measurements corresponding to the countries/regions that you want to target.

4. MAKE IT EASY TO PAY on your e-commerce website!

If customers feel that paying for a product is hard or they don’t trust the payment provider, sales won’t happen! The most popular payment methods are popular only for certain markets.
Residents of some countries do not trust PayPal and will expect you to support locally popular payment methods, such as Wire transfer or Money bookers or Payoneer, Arab countries for example. Brazilians are accustomed to pay in installments and will expect to be offered that option. In the Netherlands, people are used to paying through a secure system, which redirects them to their own bank.

5. TEST YOUR IDEAS ON THE TARGET AUDIENCE before finalization of website

A website is like a living being. It needs to be continually developed to meet the public’s expectations and to deliver on your business goals. Remember to test your website on target users.
Audiences in different countries could be attracted to different things. Ask for feedback with a simple survey. You’d be surprised by the answers you get to just a few open questions. With this feedback, you will be able to adjust your content strategy and localize your website with even greater precision.

We are sure these pointers will be of help while beginning your website localization process .. do get in touch with Language Services Bureau for any support on the same!

Monday, 31 July 2017

Website Localisation part 2

Website and App localization 

The Indian Context

With a population of one and a quarter billion people, India, the largest democracy is home to nearly 30 languages which are in daily use. Yet the Indian Constitution and Law do not define an official national language. Most languages of India belong to the Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman language families.

Considering the mobile penetration to the innermost pockets and villages of India, and the fact that only approximately 10-15%* Indians manage to barely understand or speak English in itself are eye openers about the dire need of localization and content creation in Indian languages. 

According to statistics released by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (2013), the number of total mobile phone connections was approximately 860 million. However, millions of Indians did not list English as their primary language of communication and thus were limited in mobile usage due to language borders. 
The number of Indians owning mobile phones is more than the number of Indians owning a computer. In fine, localization is the key to new communities around the globe, especially in India.
Not just informative websites and government and company websites, but most importantly, the e-commerce website data needs localization. Though some companies have already started and are trying to make data available in major Indian languages, it is a humungous task! And companies are not aware of the complexities, rates, and processes involved in professional good quality localization. It’s the consumer who will need to drive this requirement though, as this twitter page clearly demonstrates: #ServeinMyLanguage 

Among the various challenges faced in localizing content in Indian languages, the below can be listed as some of the most important!

1.   Font issues – Lack of good quality, aesthetic and accurate fonts in Open Source format is a key concern. Most of the times DTP Software like Corel or Adobe Illustrator or Adobe FrameMaker do not work with Unicode and have problems with many TTF (True type) fonts too. Thanks to BIS’ mandate for all mobile phones to provide display in 22 Indian languages, reading Indian languages on electronic devices is getting closer to reality. However it needs to be noted that most of this technology has a basic flaw – one needs to know English to go to settings and choose the required language!! Thus it is the very purpose of providing multilingual support being defeated! Even though the phone language is local, most apps don’t support these languages and end up being in English!

2.   Technical terminology: Technology related content in India uses English language most of the time. The technology never existed in India before, hence the absence of the apt terms in the Indian languages! Internet sources are also almost non-existent for terminological research and hence the translator either has to use English words in his/her local language or coin new terms which risk not being understood by the reader! Most of the times, popular ads provide perfect guidance on the transliterate/translate dilemma! Sometimes it becomes very difficult to understand the local word since many English words are regularly used in the local languages too! E.g. Table

3.   Inadequacy of good quality translators and editors: this is especially true for rare languages like Assamese, Bodo, Dogri, etc. Most Indian universities do not offer graduate and post-graduate courses in Indian language translation. Therefore, anyone knowing the 2 languages can claim to be a “translator”. Translation between 2 Indian languages is a rarer scenario.. it is difficult to find good translators from Punjabi to Kannada, for example, and English has to be used as the intermediary language. In addition, Indian translators are either not aware of or cannot afford the CAT (Computer aided translation) tools, and thus translation agencies need to manage the translations in these tools on their own.

4.   Localization - Quality language localization is much more than just translating the content of a mobile application or website to another language. It involves the idiosyncratic social and cultural, regional nuances and sensitivities that help the consumer feel safe and secure with using or buying the business product or service.
In a nation like India where regions, dialects, states and cultures are rich in number, localization is essential because every Indian individual has a different set of preferences depending on all above variants. Typically, after translation, localization involves the following steps, to mention a few:
·         Adaptation of graphics to target markets
·         Modification of content to suit the tastes and consumption habits of concerned markets
·         Adaptation of design and layout to properly display translated text
·         Conversion to local requirements (such as currencies, decimals and units of measurement)
·         Usage of proper local formats for dates, addresses, and phone numbers
·         Addressing local regulations and legal requirements

We address all such requirements of website localization. Some of the special features of website localization services from Language Services Bureau include:
     ·         In-depth knowledge of the target language, culture, and the market due to which our website translation services generate a pleasant user experience and drive business results.
       ·         Website translation services in any format as per client requirements.
      ·        A specialized team of experts with up to date domain knowledge. (both in IT as well as in the subject matter of the website).

We have recently completed translation of the following websites into the languages as mentioned below. English into German, French, Spanish, Polish and Russian

We are proud and happy that our clients have seen an immediate jump in the number of inquiries from the target locales of these languages. So what are you waiting for? Get in touch with us today at

India ruling the App Market

India is one of the biggest players in the mobile app ecosystem. In terms of consumers and publishers, the country is among the leaders worldwide. We will deal with App localization in a separate blog in the upcoming months.
Written By Devaki Kunte        

Friday, 30 June 2017

Website Localisation

Why should your website be translated into multiple languages?

The web does not just connect machines, it connects people! Tim Berners-Lee

Your website is your company’s DISPLAY WINDOW for the world! The difference here though is that the prospective client has to read through your content to get to know more about you and your offerings!

Imagine you enter a shop after being attracted by its display window and the salesman starts talking to you in a foreign language that you can’t make any sense of .. will you stay for long in this shop, let alone buy anything from there?

This is exactly what happens to people for whom English is not the first language and who reach your English-only website. They will just move ahead to another website that they “understand and can relate to” and forget about your company and products/services.

According to latest research for 2017 released by Internet World Users by Language, English speakers account for only 25.5% of the total internet users in the world. So your English-only website can reach just a quarter of the world’s internet users! Chinese speakers come to a close 20.4% and they are concentrated mostly in China.

But what about languages like Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic, French, German and Russian? Together they account for 27.5% of total internet users in the world!

A recent online study of Top languages for E-commerce for 2020 predicts a rapid decline of English on the internet. In 2020, English will account for only 33.1% of the global purchasing power, but others presently considered as minority languages like Turkish, Indonesian and Farsi will emerge with rising market shares.

So in this world with a narrowing digital language divide, how will your website fare? Are you going to be able to woo the millions of non-English speakers out there? Can you make your sales pitch in their language? Can your product brochure written in Arabic fetch you more clients from the Middle East??

As Nelson Mandela has famously said:
"If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart".

So will your website be able to strike a chord in your prospect’s heart?

This topic will be continued in our next blog in the upcoming month!

Written By Devaki Kunte

Wednesday, 31 May 2017

Translation Myths

Translation myths

We at Language Services Bureau keep hearing a lot of myths surrounding translation from clients as well as would be translators! 

In this month’s blog, we would like to share and elaborate upon some of these very common myths.

·         Translation can be done within a short span of time

·         Anyone who knows 2 languages can translate “both ways”

·         What is the need of proofreading and editing

MYTH # 1 Translation can be done within a short span of time

This is the most common myth about translation. However, it is as far from the truth as possible.  Translation is not just substitution of words! It is about conveying the correct meaning of a source document to the target audience completely and this requires time! The duration required to translate a document   depends upon factors such as:

o   Type of document:

 Documents like birth certificates, death certificates, mark sheets, etc., i.e. general texts take much less time to translate than for Technical documents, Legal documents, medical documents, etc. In short, any domain which requires subject matter expertise needs more time for translation.

o     Comprehension and research:

A translator has to first read through the document and when required, do some research on the content to get a complete overview of the document. Therefore it really does not make sense to expect a 500 page document to be translated in 5 days .. well it takes much more time to read through all those pages .. not to mention the time to understand, research upon the topic if required and then translate it! 

o   Formatting –  

Formatting is usually considered as least important and often not considered as part of translation until the output is shared with the client .. it is only then that it is evident that without a document formatted as per the original, it is quite difficult to make sense of it.. e.g. a bank statement without the tables and alignment will not be of much use!!.  For translation of documents which are scanned images the document needs to be actually recreated. And correspondingly the time estimate increases

o   Proofreading

A second translator normally goes through the translated document to check for completeness, inconsistencies, correctness, numbering, formatting, etc. and if sufficient time is not provided for the same, optimum quality cannot be guaranteed.

 MYTH # 2 Anyone who knows 2 languages can translate “both ways”

Knowing a language and having expertise in it are two different things, the latter requires time, dedication and experience. A person who knows two languages cannot necessarily translate in or from the known language The person needs to be fluent in both languages and should have years of experience in a specific domain too. The flair for languages, understanding a text, correctly re-expressing the message in a different language, patience and ability to do research, etc. are some of the basics to become a good translator.
When it comes to translating into a foreign language, it always makes sense to get the translation done from a native translator, which is the international practice, since it’s hard to know a language as well as a native does.

MYTH # 3 Good quality translation is possible without proofreading and editing

In the language industry, you will come across these terms frequently.  The reason behind their importance is enhancement of translation quality but majority of clients as well as translators are not convinced!  They don’t see the need of proofreading and editing. Proofreaders and editors are language and domain experts who compare, check and correct the document translated by other translator(s) - grammatical, logical, terminological, syntactic, formatting related errors and omissions are thus verified and corrected by them.
A translated document needs to be checked at least twice, once by the translator himself/herself and then by the proofreader. If time and budget permits, proofread document needs to be reviewed again by the editor since to ensure translation quality, this is the internationally followed practice!  

Let’s have a look at the an example to prove the importance of review, since even a seasoned and experienced translator can commit such errors.
Translated sentence:
Supporting the meteorology assembly
Proofread sentence:
Supporting the metrology assembly

The term “metrology” was misspelled as “meteorology”!!!
Ø  In this case, it is clear that an automatic spell-check was not sufficient. Thanks to our proofreader who identified this error! A proofreader is always essential, since they not only look for typos but also check the terminology and semantics.

Myths busted hopefully!! Do let us know if you too have come across some myths about translation or the language industry!

Written By Daya Shetty and edited by Devaki Kunte
May 20, 2017
Language Services Bureau, Pune, India

Thursday, 23 March 2017



So many terms and so much confusion!! :D 

At Language Services Bureau, we handle many requirements of “Certified Translation Services” of official documents on a daily basis. But that does not mean LSB is certified to do such translations!!

As a matter of fact, no agency is “Certified/authorized/approved” by the Indian government to provide certified/official/authorized translations in any Indian or international language.

And what about “Sworn translator”, a concept which exists in some European, South American countries and the US?  
According to Wikipedia, in some countries, it is a requirement that a translator swears on oath to attest that a translated document is the legal equivalent of the source text for translations of evidentiary documents. In some cases, the translation is only accepted as a legal equivalent if it is accompanied by the original or a sworn or certified copy of it.
A sworn translator needs to have different qualifications, requirements to be fulfilled and has to apply to various authorities granting the status of sworn translator, depending on the languages he/she works in and the country in which the documents are to be submitted.
However, such “sworn translations/translators” do not exist in India.

Another recurring requirement from our clients is that of notarized affidavits to be submitted along with the translation. Such affidavits are to be made and signed by the translator to confirm that the translations are done by him/her on a stamp paper. This affidavit is then signed by a notary regardless of the fact that he/she does not even know the source and/or target language(s). It is therefore quite clear that such an exercise is quite futile since the authenticity and correctness of the translation cannot be checked by the notary!

Language Services Bureau is the first Language Service Provider in India to start providing “Certified translations”. “Certified” means, our translations are provided on our letterhead, with our stamp, signature and certification that mentions that it is us/our translator who has done the translation. Sometimes, for translation into a foreign language, we also need to put in a disclaimer.

We provide “Certified” translation of documents like

  • Birth Certificates, Death Certificates, Marriage Certificate, Divorce Certificates, 
  • Academic degrees, Diplomas, Course Certificates
  • Custom documents
  • Driver’s licenses, Citizenship Cards, Passports, Ration cards, Visa copies, Residence permits
  • CVs, Bank statements, Tax Receipts, TDS certificates, Experience Certificates, Salary Certificates
  • Utility bills (Electricity Bill, Landline/Mobile Phone Bill, Credit Card Bill, etc.)
  • Land related documents (Registration, 7/12 extracts or RTC extracts)
  • Wills, Sale Deeds, Partnership Deeds
  • Prescriptions, Medical Reports

Thousands of documents translated by us have been accepted at various schools, government offices, banks, universities, consulates and embassies in India as well as in foreign countries for three and a half decades! Yet this does not guarantee that our translation will be accepted every time and everywhere. This is because every office, consulate, embassy, or university will have its own set of rules for acceptance of translations .. which may even change with time!

It is always safer to ask about the terms and conditions of acceptance of certified translations wherever the document needs to be submitted before ordering a translation. This way, one saves much effort, money and time.  

LSB offers certified translation in three different service offerings:
- Regular delivery
- Next day delivery
- Same day delivery

Quotations are provided after going through the document for translation.  
Translation charges depend on:
- volume
- language pair
- file format
- delivery timeframe. 

Payment options are easy too! 
- Cash 
- Bank transfer 
- Cheque 

Once a draft translation is accepted, it is finalized and can be sent by courier to the address of the one's choice upon payment of courier charges.

So, all in all, LSB can surely help you translate your official documents in any language combination, whether from Assamese to French, from Dutch to English or from Malayalam to Hindi! You just need to verify if our translation will be acceptable wherever the document is to be submitted!

Send a mail on with the document for translation, and we will promptly get back to you. 

Monday, 20 February 2017

Is your content translation-friendly? Part 3

In this final section of our 3 part blog on Writing Translation Friendly content, we elaborate on other aspects of making a text easier to understand and translate, like correct usage of Formatting and CAT tools 

Most of the times, formatting is one aspect that easily slips out of consideration. But if the files are really large and formatting is messy, the translator may have to spend almost 50% of his/her time on getting it right. And the unpredictable extra time spent on formatting during or after translation will either push your delivery time ahead or hamper the ultimate quality of the end product that is handed over to you.

Take care that re-formatting will not be necessary for your documents. To ensure this, certain precautions can be taken. Do not put too much make-up on your document. But do acquaint yourself with the formatting options available in your editing software, to make the best use of it.

Pointers to remember:
  • A lot of time is saved if the files for translation are editable i.e. in Word, Excel etc. rather than PDFs or scanned image files. This way, the effort of re-creating all the formatting is saved. Also, editable files can be translated using Computer Assisted Translation (CAT) software which is much faster and accurate when it comes to formatting since it easily copies the exact formatting in to the target document.
  • Avoid complicated formatting styles, uncommon fonts, uncommon colour shades, etc. Simple formatting will make document editing easy.
  • Keep styles uniform and consistent. The various levels of headings, the body text, image headings, table headings, tabular text and all other such categories should follow uniform formatting styles. e.g.        
    • Headings, e.g.:Main topic heading: font size-14
      • Sub-headings: font size-12
      • Sub-point headings: font size-11
      • Body text: font size-10                                                          
    • Image headings - all in italics                                                   '
    • Table headings - all in italics
    • Take special care of the automatically defined fields such as – numbering, text levels, the numbering of images and tables, page numbers etc. Familiarize yourself with the fields that you can insert and make sure that they are properly defined. It is possible that a certain link somewhere in the document will lose its link while translating or editing. Find and fix such broken links, otherwise, they may disturb the entire numbering system in the document.
    • Hyperlinks and cross references are other delicate issues which need attention and must be properly defined.
    • Formula applied in Excel sheets as well as other cross references should be carefully defined
    • Embedded objects in PPTs can also be challenging. You may either insert them after you receive the final translated file or inform the translator about the links that he/she should retain.
    Delivering a translated file that is exactly like the original one is an essential quality constraint. The above precautions can help in conforming to this requirement.

    In the world of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT) Tools, writing rules are slightly different than what we learned in composition classes. These tools play an incomparable role in making the translation process fast and ensuring maximum accuracy. But they work mathematically. So, technical documents can be designed in CAT tool-friendly manner, to get maximum benefits from it.
    •      Keep repetitions: Use the same terms and sentence to convey the same things. These will show as exact or 'fuzzy' matches in the CAT tool which will reduce on the cost and time of translation. Wherever minute changes are necessary, you may create new sentences for the new information while keeping the sentence with repetition as it is. This will preserve repetitions as well as keep the sentences short and easy.
    •     No synonyms: Using the same word for the same meaning will also ensure consistency in translation since the translator can look up in the memory for the previous translations used for the repeating terms.
    •           Consistent and simple formatting: CAT tools also consider formatting when finding matches. So make sure that the formatting of the repeated sentences is identical. Complicated formatting styles, automatically defined fields and values may get disturbed in occasional instances when the file is processed under CAT tools. This may need special care and attention.
    •      Always spellcheck: Spelling errors may hamper detection of matches and concordances. Not just for CAT tools but even for ensuring correct meanings of words, spellcheck is a must.
    •      Limit the file size: it is difficult and time consuming to process heavy files in CAT tools. This may, at times cause the processes to fail. If possible split your documents topic-wise. Do not include a very large number of images, screenshots, embedded objects etc. to limit the file size. 
    Looking at the growing need for translations, it is now a necessity that the processes, challenges, standards used in the translation industry, the available technological advancements as well as their limitations become known to a maximum number of people who may play a direct or indirect role in this process no matter how big or small. Crossing language barriers is inevitable for growth and development. And translation plays the key role in it. Let's take a step towards making it better and easier!

    Written By Shweta Bhide and edited by Devaki Kunte
    February 20, 2017
    Language Services Bureau, Pune, India